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When is it time to worry about the cough?

Written By Jennifer Shaer MD, FAAP, FABM, IBCL

CoughIt seems like kids cough all winter long. When is it time to worry about the cough? When can you treat it at home and when should you go to the doctor?

There are many causes of coughing in children. Most commonly, a cough is caused by a viral upper respiratory infection. However, coughs can also be caused by asthma, pneumonia, croup, bronchiolitis, whooping cough, sinusitis, allergies, reflux and even an inhaled foreign body. This article will review the …

Viral upper respiratory infections

This is the common cold. A cough from a cold will typically last two weeks. There is commonly some productive phlegm toward the end of a cold. Antibiotics do not help viral illness so it is best to let this type of cough run it’s course. It is common to have some fever with a viral upper respiratory infection for the first few days. However, you should visit the doctor if the fever lasts more than a few days. You should also be seen if the cough lasts more than a week or the fever comes back after having stopped.

Whooping cough (pertussis)

Recently there has been a resurgence of pertussis. Pertussis will start off looking like the common cold. However, instead of getting better, the cough gets worse. Children with pertussis will cough many times in a row.

They will often lose their breath and take a big “whoop” breath at the end of a series of coughs. Babies with pertussis will sometimes stop breathing and turn blue. Pertussis is extremely dangerous to babies and is preventable by vaccine. It is important to make sure that your baby gets all his pertussis vaccines. In addition, we now give teenagers and adults a pertussis vaccine.

Asthma

A cough from asthma is usually not associated with a fever. Kids with asthma will cough more with exercise and at night. Asthma is usually triggered by a cold so children who have a history of wheezing should always see the doctor when they are coughing.

Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis is when a viral upper respiratory infection moves into your baby’s chest and causes wheezing. Signs that your baby’s cold might be bronchiolitis include trouble nursing or taking a bottle, heavy or fast breathing and wet sounding cough. In general, babies with a cough should see the doctor.

To learn more about coughs, or any other medical conditions your child may be facing, visit HealthyChildren.org.

Dr. Shaer is a pediatrician and a board certified lactation consultant (IBCLC). She is director of the Breastfeeding Medicine Center of Allied Pediatrics of New York.

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Why Our Office Requires MMR Vaccine

Written by Nelson Branco MD FAAP

Vaccines have been a hot topic among parents, pediatrician and in the media for many years. Recently, there have been many news stories about pediatricians who will not care for families who either choose not to vaccinate their children or who do not follow the recommended schedule.

These policies are based on knowledge about the safety of vaccines, the effectiveness of the recommended schedule and concern about the spread of a vaccine-preventable disease in the community.

No pediatrician wants to see a child suffer from a condition that could have been prevented, and we certainly do not want those illnesses to be spread in our offices.

My practice is in Marin County, California – an area that is known for high rates of vaccine delay and vaccine refusal . After much thought and careful consideration, my partners and I recently decided to change our policy related to immunizations.

Starting this spring, we will require that all patients age 2 and older be immunized with the Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) vaccine in order to remain patients of our practice.

We have a responsibility to protect the health of all of the children in our practice, and decrease the risk of vaccine-preventable diseases in our community. We have chosen to require the MMR vaccine because we are extremely concerned about the possibility of a Measles outbreak in our community.

Vaccine preventable diseases are still a threat to the health of our children and our community. In 2010, the Pertussis (Whooping Cough) epidemic in California affected children in Marin County at eight times the rate seen in California overall, in part because of low immunization rates.

There was recently a case of Mumps in a school-aged child in our county, and last year there was an outbreak of Mumps in a dormitory at the University of California at Berkeley.

There have been Measles cases and outbreaks associated with the 2012 Super Bowl, and in recent years in San Diego, Quebec, Indiana and Minnesota. In 2011, there were 222 reported cases of Measles in the US, the highest rate in 15 years. Ninety percent of these cases were associated with air travel, but not all cases were in travelers.

Measles has become much more common in Western Europe, Africa, Asia and the United Kingdom due to dropping vaccination rates. The CDC is already warning us that with the Summer Olympics in London and the Eurocup Soccer Championship in the Ukraine, the possibility of a US traveler to these countries coming back with Measles is high. Because of this, we are concerned that Marin County is at risk for a Measles outbreak.

Because Measles is so easy to spread, in order for a community to be protected from an outbreak, 95% of the population must be immunized. Right now, the number of Kindergartners in our county who are up to date on all of their vaccines is 83%, and there are schools and communities in Marin County where less than 50% of Kindergarten students have had all of their required vaccines.

Certain areas in our community are clearly at risk of a Measles epidemic. In our practice, we have many children who are too young to receive the MMR vaccine as well as many children who have chronic illnesses that compromise their immune system and put them at risk. This policy is meant to protect not only these children, but also our entire community from a Measles outbreak.

We respect that the parents in our practice have the ultimate responsibility for making decisions about their children’s health care, but we have to weigh their personal decisions against the available data and the needs of our community.

In our practice, we feel strongly that communicating and collaborating with our patients and their families is the best way to provide excellent care. We also feel strongly that vaccines save lives and that this policy protects our patients and our community from a preventable disease and all of its repercussions.

Dr. Branco is a practicing pediatrician in the San Francisco Bay Area and is very active with the local chapter of the AAP.

Let’s Talk About Pertussis Also Known as Whooping Cough

Written by Richard Lander MD FAAP

What is pertussis?

Pertussis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. Sometimes referred to as the hundred day cough, it can be quite debilitating. The cough is persistent and recurs day in and day out. Once you hear this cough, you will never forget it. The cough is repetitive, easily lasting 30 seconds or more and has a whoop sound at the end of it. This whoop is what gives rise to its popular name whooping cough. If you are curious, you can hear the whoop sound on the internet.

Who gets Pertussis?

Many people do-all ages and from all walks of life including: young children, teenagers, adults in middle age and senior citizens.

Is Pertussis contagious?

Yes it is. I have seen Pertussis several times in my practice this year. I have seen it spread from mother to child, among siblings and even from teacher to students.

Treatment of Pertussis

There are different phases of Pertussis. When the diagnosis is made during the first phase of the illness, it can be treated with antibiotics. This may shorten the duration of the disease. Otherwise physicians can offer supportive care and medication to help the patient sleep.

Prevention

Pertussis is preventable by a vaccine. This vaccine, DPT (Diptheria, Pertussis and Tetanus) is typically given during childhood. The vaccine is given as a series of three injections in the first year of life, a booster during the second year of life and another booster before the start of elementary school. An additional booster is given at 11 year of age.

Because this last vaccine is relatively new, many children older than 11 year of age will be receiving it. Additionally the Tetanus booster which has always been recommended to be given every ten years has been change to include the Pertussis vaccine.

Therefore, adults of almost all ages are urged to obtain it even if you received a Tetanus booster a year ago. Many hospitals across the country are giving the vaccine to new mothers right after delivery and in some progressive hospitals the vaccine is being offered to new dads and to grandparents.

With this approach the State of California, which had seen deaths from Pertussis in the last few years, has dramatically decreased their rate of Pertussis. These dramatic results have persuaded many pediatricians to offer this vaccine to parents and grandparents of their patients.

Why talk about Pertussis now?

Pertussis is on the rise in the United States. From January through March in 2012 there were seven times the number of cases seen in Washington, D.C. than in the same time frame the year before in 2011. So why you might wonder: why this rise in Pertussis now? Several years ago we experienced a number of parents refusing to have their children vaccinated against childhood diseases including Pertussis.

These refusals were based on fears of the vaccines and components of the vaccines such as aluminum or mercury. Thankfully, these fears have been proven to have been unfounded. Unfortunately, once people stopped vaccinating their children, herd immunity was lost.

Herd immunity is gained when a majority of people in a geographic area receive a vaccine. These vaccines then protect even the few who were not vaccinated.

As the number of vaccine refusers climbed, we lost herd immunity. Hopefully today with increased knowledge through education, the number of vaccine refusers is beginning to decline and more people are again protected against infectious diseases such as Pertussis. Scientists are working tirelessly looking for clues to currently unanswerable medical questions.

Every day they race the clock in an effort to look for a treatment for currently untreatable medical conditions and diseases. Pertussis is not one of them. Pertussis is preventable with a vaccine It is criminal that there are people living in the United States in 2012 suffering from a disease they did not have to have. Please don’t be one of them. Ensure that you and your loved ones do not get Pertussis. Get vaccinated! Get vaccinated now!

Dr. Lander has been practicing pediatrics for 32 years in New Jersey and is the immediate past chairman of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Administration and Practice Management.  He says if he had to do it all over again he wouldn’t hesitate to be a pediatrician.