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When is it time to worry about the cough?

Written By Jennifer Shaer MD, FAAP, FABM, IBCL

CoughIt seems like kids cough all winter long. When is it time to worry about the cough? When can you treat it at home and when should you go to the doctor?

There are many causes of coughing in children. Most commonly, a cough is caused by a viral upper respiratory infection. However, coughs can also be caused by asthma, pneumonia, croup, bronchiolitis, whooping cough, sinusitis, allergies, reflux and even an inhaled foreign body. This article will review the …

Viral upper respiratory infections

This is the common cold. A cough from a cold will typically last two weeks. There is commonly some productive phlegm toward the end of a cold. Antibiotics do not help viral illness so it is best to let this type of cough run it’s course. It is common to have some fever with a viral upper respiratory infection for the first few days. However, you should visit the doctor if the fever lasts more than a few days. You should also be seen if the cough lasts more than a week or the fever comes back after having stopped.

Whooping cough (pertussis)

Recently there has been a resurgence of pertussis. Pertussis will start off looking like the common cold. However, instead of getting better, the cough gets worse. Children with pertussis will cough many times in a row.

They will often lose their breath and take a big “whoop” breath at the end of a series of coughs. Babies with pertussis will sometimes stop breathing and turn blue. Pertussis is extremely dangerous to babies and is preventable by vaccine. It is important to make sure that your baby gets all his pertussis vaccines. In addition, we now give teenagers and adults a pertussis vaccine.

Asthma

A cough from asthma is usually not associated with a fever. Kids with asthma will cough more with exercise and at night. Asthma is usually triggered by a cold so children who have a history of wheezing should always see the doctor when they are coughing.

Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis is when a viral upper respiratory infection moves into your baby’s chest and causes wheezing. Signs that your baby’s cold might be bronchiolitis include trouble nursing or taking a bottle, heavy or fast breathing and wet sounding cough. In general, babies with a cough should see the doctor.

To learn more about coughs, or any other medical conditions your child may be facing, visit HealthyChildren.org.

Dr. Shaer is a pediatrician and a board certified lactation consultant (IBCLC). She is director of the Breastfeeding Medicine Center of Allied Pediatrics of New York.

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Can I Spoil My Newborn?

Written By Jennifer Shaer MD, FAAP, FABM, IBCL

Parents of newborns often ask me if holding their baby too much will spoil him or her. The answer to this question is a resounding “No”.

Newborn babies are accustomed to being held 24/7. This was their existence during their entire gestation. Any amount of time that a newborn is not being held can be stressful. An infant does not need to learn and cannot learn to be independent immediately after birth. Newborns do not have the capacity to be lazy or manipulative at this stage.

The best way to comfort and care for a newborn is to imagine recreating the feeling of being in utero. If your baby falls asleep on your chest, enjoy it. Newborns regulate body temperature, heart rate and breathing best when lying chest to chest with mother or father.

Because of this, baby wearing has become popular of late and is a great way to nurture your baby hands free while taking care of yourself and even your other kids.

However, this does not mean that you need to be a slave to your baby. If you need to put your baby down and he cries, it will not harm him in the long run.

My advise is to follow your instincts. Hold your baby whenever you want to without the guilt that you are spoiling him.

Cherish this time. All too soon he will be grown up. On the other hand, do not fret if you have to or want to put him down to take care of something. Consider using a sling which will allow you to multitask.

As babies grow up, this advice changes. Older babies do benefit from learning how to self soothe. For now, enjoy those first few months. Forget the laundry, cooking, entertaining and other chores unless critically important. Spend this time bonding with your newborn and enjoy every moment while it lasts.

 

Dr. Shaer is a pediatrician and a board certified lactation consultant (IBCLC). She is director of the Breastfeeding Medicine Center of Allied Pediatrics of New York.

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Why don’t you have separate sick and well waiting rooms?

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Written by Suzanne Berman MD. Dr. Berman is a practicing general pediatrician in rural Tennessee.

We’re occasionally asked by families why we don’t have separate waiting rooms for sick and well patients.  It’s a good question, especially given that many pediatric offices are designed this way.  There are several reasons why we chose not to do this.

 What ‘s a “sick” visit vs. a “well” visit?  

The first problem is one of definition.   While some kids are very clearly sick and other kids are clearly well, many of the visits we do don’t fit nearly into one category or another.  Is a depressed teenager “sick” or “well” ?

What about a 4 year old with a possible urinary tract infection?   An infant who’s not gaining weight?  An 8-year-old with belly pain?   A better way to separate the waiting rooms would be a “contagious” waiting room and a “noncontagious” waiting room.

However…

Parents often don’t know whether a child is contagious or not when they check in.  

We don’t expect them to be – that’s our job.   If a child comes in with a new rash, it might be eczema (not contagious at all), chickenpox (very contagious), or ringworm (only very mildly contagious, and certainly not enough to keep them out of school or sports.)   Fifth disease is contagious and causes a rash – but once the rash appears, the child is no longer contagious.

Knowing whether the child is contagious (and how contagious, and for how long) first requires a medical evaluation – and that happens after the child has been brought back, not in the waiting room.

What about siblings? 

We often see double or triple appointments in a family.   If Dad brings in a 6-month-old baby for a checkup (a well visit) and his two year old sister for a cough (a sick visit), what side of the waiting room should the whole family sit on?

We could put the well baby on the sick side (since he’s already been exposed to the two year old’s illness, presumably), or we could put the sick child on the well side (to keep the well baby well.)   There’s no good answer.

And I can’t put a number on the times I’ve seen a well child who was accompanied by a parent who was coughing and sneezing uncontrollably.

It actually can make crowding in the waiting room worse.

Our office’s single large waiting area measures about 20 x 30 feet.   Let’s say we divided it in half, to create separate sick and well waiting areas, each about 20 x 15 feet.

In the summer, when 70 percent or more of our visits are “well,” our patients would be crammed in a much smaller room while our “sick room” would be underutilized.

The exact opposite would be true in the winter months –a crowded waiting room of sick children half as big as it could be.   When we have a single large area, we can make the most of our space; families can sit wherever they wish, near or far away from anyone else in the waiting room.

Parents are sometimes not honest about their child’s contagious condition.

I once reviewed a malpractice case in which the plaintiff contended that the defendant pediatrician didn’t recognize a baby’s sickness. The defendant’s attorney asked the plaintiff’s grandmother (who had brought the baby to the office) whether the grandmother chose the sick or well side.

The grandmother said, “We sat on the well side.”  The defendant’s attorney asked, “If the baby was sick, as you say, why did you sit on the well side?”   The grandmother replied, “Well, she wasn’t very sick at the time – just a little sneezing and cough.  And I didn’t want her catching something from the sick side.”

Honest parents will admit that they’re usually more concerned about keeping their own child away from other sick children, rather than worried that other well children will catch their child’s illness.

Our receptionists don’t want to police the waiting rooms.

Colleagues with separate sick and well waiting rooms tell me that their receptionists spend at least part of each day helping parents decide which waiting room to sit in, moving patients from one waiting room to another, or settling angry squabbles between two families who are convinced the other’s child is in the “wrong” area.

Our receptionists would rather check in patients quickly – validating insurance information, updating phone numbers, and processing questionnaires — rather than serving as “waiting room police.”

There’s no evidence separate sick and well waiting rooms make a difference in controlling the spread of infection.

The American Academy of Pediatrics’ statement on controlling infection in pediatric offices states, “No studies document the need for, or benefit of, separate waiting areas for well and ill children.”

We believe that other commonsense precautions are more effective – like making masks, tissues, and hand sanitizer available in the waiting room; bringing children suspected of having an extremely contagious disease in through the back door; bringing extremely fragile/susceptible children back as soon as they enter the office.

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Will Having a Baby Stand Make Them Bow Legged?

Written by Kristen Stuppy MD. Dr. Stuppy is a practicing pediatrician in Kansas. She feels privileged to be able to help families keep their children healthy and she loves watching entire families grow!  Dr Stuppy is active on Facebook and puts a more personal touch to pediatric topics on her blog.

I am surprised how often I am asked if having a baby “stand” on a parent’s lap will make them bow legged or otherwise hurt them.

Old Wives Tales are ingrained in our societies and because they are shared by people we trust, they are often never questioned.

Allowing babies to stand causing problems is one of those tales. If an adult holds a baby under the arms and supports the trunk to allow the baby to bear weight on his legs it will not harm the baby.

Many babies love this position and will bounce on your leg. It allows them to be upright and see the room around them. Supported standing can help build strong trunk muscles.

Other fun activities that build strong muscles in infants:

Tummy time: Place baby on his tummy on a flat surface that is not too soft. Never leave baby here alone, but use this as a play time. Move brightly colored or noisy objects in front of baby’s head to encourage baby to look up at it. Older siblings love to lay on the floor and play with baby this way!

Lifting gently: When baby is able to grasp your fingers with both hands from a laying position, gently lift baby’s head and back off the surface. Baby will get stronger neck muscles by lifting his head. Be careful to not make sudden jerks and to not allow baby to fall back too fast.

Kicking: Place baby on his back with things to kick near his feet. Things that make a noise or light up when kicked make kicking fun! You can also give gentle resistance to baby’s kicks with your hand to build leg muscles.

Sitting: Allow baby to sit on your lap or the floor with less and less support from you. An easy safe position is with the parent on the floor with legs in a “V” and baby at the bottom of the “V”. When fairly stable you can put pillows behind baby and supervise independent sitting.

Chest to chest: From day one babies held upright against a parent’s chest will start to lift their heads briefly. The more this is done, the stronger the neck muscles get. This is a great cuddle activity too!

What were your favorite activities to help baby grow and develop strong muscles?

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What is a diaper rash and is it serious?

Written by Joanna E. Betancourt MD FAAP

A diaper rash is any rash that develops inside the diaper area.

In mild cases, the skin might be red. In more severe cases, there may be painful open sores.

It is usually seen around the groin and inside the folds of the upper thighs and buttocks. Miles cases clear up within 3 to 4 days with treatment.

What causes diaper rash?

Over the years diaper rash has been blamed on many causes, such as teething, diet, and ammonia in the urine. However, we now believe it is caused by any of the following:

  • Too much moisture
  • Chafing or rubbing
  • When urine, stools, or both touch the skin for long period of time
  • Yeast infections
  • Bacterial infection
  • Allergic reaction to diaper material

When skin stays wet for too long, it starts to break down.

When wet skin is rubbed, it also damages more easily. Moisture from the soiled diaper can harm you baby’s skin and make it more prone to chafing. When this happens, a diaper rash may develop.

More than half of babies between 4 and 15 months of age develop diaper rash at least once in a 2-month period.

Diaper rash occurs more often when:

  • Babies get older-mostly between 8 to 10 months of age.
  • Babies are not kept clean and dry.
  • Babies have frequent stools, especially when the stool stay in their diaper overnight.
  • Babies have diarrhea
  • Babies begin to eat solid foods
  • Babies are taking antibiotics or in nursing babies whose mothers are taking antibiotics.

When to call the pediatrician?

Sometimes a diaper rashes need medical attention. Talk with your pediatrician if:

  • The rash does not look like it’s going away or gets worse 2 to 3 days after treatment.
  • The rash includes blisters or pus-filled sores.
  • Your baby is taking antibiotic and has a bright red rash with red spots at its edges. This might be a yeast infection.
  • Your baby has a fever along with a rash.
  • The rash is very painful. Your baby might have a skin condition called cellulitis.
  • What can I do if my baby gets diaper rash?

If your baby has a diaper rash (and to prevent future diaper rashes)

  1. It’s important to keep the area as clean and dry as possible. Change wet or soiled diaper right away. This helps cut down how much moisture is on the skin.
  2. Gently clean the diaper with water and a soft washcloth. Disposable diaper wipes may also be used. Avoid wipes that contain alcohol and fragrance.
  3. Use soap and water only if the stool does not come off easily. If the rash is severe, use a squirt bottle of water so you can clean and rinse without rubbing.
  4. Pat dry; do not rub. Allow the area to air-dry fully.
  5. Apply a thick layer of protective ointment or cream (such as on that contains zinc a oxide or petroleum jelly). These ointments are usually are usually thick and pasty and do not have to be completely removed at the next diaper change.
  6. Remember, heavy scrubbing or burring will only damage the skin more.
  7. Do not put the diaper on too tight, especially overnight. Keep the diaper loose so that the wet and soiled part does not rub against the skin as much.
  8. Use cream with steroids only if your pediatrician recommends them. They are rarely needed and may be harmful.
  9. Check with your pediatrician if the rash a) has blisters or pus-filled sores; does not go away within 2 to 3 days; Gets worse.

Many parents ask me if a cloth diaper is better than disposable diapers. Research suggests that diaper rashes are less common with the use of disposable diapers.

However, what is more important than the type of diaper is how often it is changed. Whether you use cloth diapers, disposables, or both, always change diapers as needed to keep your baby clean, dry, and healthy.

Hopefully, this little bit of background on diaper rashes give you some good insight about this condition that many babies have.

Dr. Betancourt is a board certified pediatricians and a Fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics. She has 3 kids and gets a little grumpy when she doesn’t get a chance to workout at the gym at least 3-times a week. 

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Starting Solids: The Old and the New and the Myths

Written by Kristen Stuppy MD

Many parents are excited yet apprehensive to start foods with their infants. So many questions, so many fears. So much food introduction guidance has changed in recent years, that what you did with your older kids might not be current. Change takes time, so not everyone agrees on the “new” rules. Talk to your own pediatrician to see their take on it all!

The older “rules” for starting foods were so confusing… different sources will vary on these rules.

  • don’t feed before 6 months is now ok to feed at 4 months if baby’s ready
  • don’t give nuts, eggs, and other “allergy” foods until ____ (2/3/5 years, varying by expert) is now it is okay to give allergy foods unless there is a family history of food allergy
  • don’t start more than one food every 3-5 days is now introducing multiple foods at one time is ok
  • start with rice, then add vegetables, then meat., wait until last for fruit is now begin with any foods, but try to make nutritious choices, such as meat which is high in iron and protein

Variations of this were plenty, depending on the provider’s preferences. No wonder there is so much confusion!!!!

New rules are much easier. I like easier.

  • Start new foods between 4 and 6 months, when your baby shows interest and is able to sit with minimal support and hold the head up.
  • Don’t give honey until 1 year of age.
  • Don’t give any textures your baby will choke on.

Done.

That’s it. Nothing fancy. Any foods in any order. Multiple new foods on the same day are okay. Common sense will hopefully guide types of foods. Nothing too salted. Try nutritious foods, not junk.

These minimal rules can make parents weary.

What about food allergies if foods are given too early?

Research does not support the thought that starting foods earlier lead to allergies. In fact, there is research to support that starting foods earlier might prevent food allergies. A full 180 degree change!

Pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers no longer have to avoid nuts or other allergy foods in most cases. If there is a close family member with a food allergy, it might still be beneficial to wait to introduce that food. Talk with your pediatrician in that case.

I admit that I was initially nervous about telling parents it was okay to give nut products in infancy. Not just the allergy aspect, but also choking risks. ~ Back to the no textures your baby will choke on… nuts are hard and round– two no-nos, peanut butter is thick and sticky– another choking risk.

Any of the more allergy prone foods should first be offered in small amounts at home. These foods include nuts, egg, and fish. Do this only if there is no one in your house who is allergic to that food.

Have diphenhydramine allergy syrup around just in case, but remember most kids are NOT allergic, and starting younger seems to prevent (not cause) allergy. In the case of nuts, since there is also a choking risk, you can try a food cooked with nuts or nut oil.

What about saving the fruit for last so they don’t get a sweet tooth?

Babies who have had breast milk have had sweet all along! Breast milk is very sweet, yet babies who are graduating to foods often love the new flavors and textures with foods.

Formula babies haven’t had the sweet milk, but they can still develop a healthy appreciation of flavors with addition of new foods. Saving fruit for last simply doesn’t seem to make a difference.

Adding fruits alone is not very nutritious though, so fruits should be added along with other more nutritious foods. The more colors on our plates, the healthier the meal probably is!

I thought they couldn’t have cow’s milk until after a year?

Cow’s milk is not a meal in itself (like breast milk or formula). It is missing many vitamins and minerals, so babies need to continue breast milk or formula until at least a year. Cow’s milk may lead to allergies or eczema, including formulas made with cow’s milk.

Milk products, such as cheese and yogurt can be given to babies as part of an otherwise well rounded diet as long as they don’t show any allergy risks to milk. Regardless of dairy intake, it is recommended for infants under 6 months to have 400 IU Vitamin D/day and those over 6 months to take 600 IU Vitamin D/day as a supplement.

I thought they should have cereal first…

Rice cereal has been the first food for generations, probably because grandma said so. There has never been any research supporting giving it first. With white rice and other “white” carbohydrates under attack now, it is no wonder the “rice first” rule is being debated. Despite being fortified with vitamins and iron, it is relatively nutrient poor, so choosing a meat or vegetable as first foods will offer more nutrition.

Shouldn’t we wait on meat?

Waiting on meat due to protein load was once recommended, but no longer felt to be needed. Pureed meats (preferably from your refrigerator… baby food meats are not very palatable!) are a great source of nutrition for baby! Some experts recommend meat as the first food due to its high nutritional value and low allergy risk.

How do we know what they’re allergic to if we start several new things at once?

First, most kids are not allergic.

Second, if they are allergic to a food, it is often days/weeks/months before the allergy is recognized. Waiting 3 days between food introduction simply doesn’t allow recognition unless it is hives or anaphylaxis, and there are a small number of foods that account for most of these reactions.

If your child has one of these reactions we can test to see what the offender was. This is recommended with severe allergies since people with one allergy might have other allergies, and identification for avoidance is important.

Allergy symptoms can be broad and often are not specific: dry skin (eczema), runny nose, hives, swelling of lips, difficulty breathing, vomiting, diarrhea, or blood in the stool. If you think your child is allergic to a food, discuss with your doctor. Severe symptoms (anaphylaxis) demand immediate attention!

How do we know when to start foods? I wanted to start to help baby sleep through the night, but I heard starting too soon increased obesity and diabetes.

When babies are able to sit with minimal support and hold their head up and when thye show interest in food by reaching for it they might be ready. They can wait until 6 months to start foods, but some studies show poor weight gain and nutritional balance as well as resistance to foods if started after 6 months.

In formula fed babies it has been shown to increase the risk of obesity at 3 years (6x!) if foods are started before 4 months of age. That risk is not seen in exclusively breast fed infants or those who begin foods after 4 months of age.

It is still an old wive’s tale that starting solids will help baby sleep through the night. Babies tend to sleep longer stretches at this age, so it is no wonder that this myth perpetuates. Start foods because you see signs that baby is ready, not because you want longer sleep patterns!

How do I know how much to feed my baby?

Babies will let you know when they are full by turning away, pursing their lips, spitting out food, or throwing foods. As they eat more food, they will need less breast milk or formula. In general a baby who is gaining weight normally will self regulate volumes.

What’s better: baby foods bought at the store or home made foods?

Marketing and ease of preparation has made pre-prepared foods for us all common place. It does not mean they are any better. They cost more than home made foods. I didn’t make baby foods when my kids were babies because I thought it would be too hard, but now I puree foods to put into recipes (my kids are like many who aren’t fans of veggies and I want to improve their nutrition). It really isn’t hard. You can take whatever you are cooking for your family and put it in a food processor or some blenders and with a little water to get it to a texture baby can eat: voila! Home made food. There are of course many baby food cook books and ideas of how to freeze meal-sized portions so you can make multiple meals at one sitting. There is help for parents who want to safely prepare baby food at home at the USDA website.

My baby only wants table foods. Is that okay? Don’t they need pureed foods first? He doesn’t have many teeth!

Pureed foods are what most babies start with due to the easy texture, but some babies quickly develop the ability to pick up small pieces of food with the pincher grasp (finger/thumb) and want to feed themselves. If they are able to get the food in their mouth, move it to the back safely with their tongue, and swallow without choking, they are ready to feed table foods… at least with some textures. Beware of chewy or hard foods as well as round foods ~ these all increase the risk of choking.

Most babies will be able to eat table foods between 9 and 12 months. They tend to not have molars until after 12 months, so they grind with their gums and use all their saliva to help break down food. They need foods broken into small enough pieces until they can bite off a safe bite themselves.

Don’t put the whole meal on their tray at once… they will shove it all in and choke! Put a few bites down at a time and let them swallow before putting more down. Rotate food groups to give them a balance, or feed the least favorite first when they are most hungry, saving the best for last!

This is a great time for parents, sitters, and other caregivers to take a refresher course on CPR in case baby does choke. Infants and young children are more likely to choke on foods and small objects, so it is always good to be prepared!

How much juice should my baby drink?

In general I think babies don’t need juice at all. They can practice drinking from a cup with water. Juice adds little nutritional value and a lot of sugar. Eating fruit and drinking water is preferable. If they do drink juice, it should be 100% fruit or vegetable juice, not a fruit flavored drink! No more than 4 ounces/day of fruit juice is recommended.

What about organic?

There is not enough evidence to recommend organic food, since the nutritional components of the foods are similar regardless of how they were farmed.

Organically grown foods do have lower pesticide residues than conventionally farmed produce, but it is debated if this is significant or not to overall health. Conventionally farmed produce have the pesticide levels monitored, and they fall within levels that are felt to be safe.

Organic farming rules also dictate no food additives or added hormones, which is also an area of study for health risks and benefits, but not enough data is available to give an educated opinion yet.

Organic farming is generally felt to be better for the environment, but the sustainability of that is questioned.

Many argue that the taste of organic foods is superior.

Organic farming might increase the risk of bacterial and fungal contamination or heavy metal content, so it is very important to wash fresh fruits and vegetables well prior to cutting or eating (as you should with all fresh foods).

For more information, see the USDA site.

A backyard garden can be inexpensive, organic, and a great way for your kids to learn about growing and preparing healthy foods!

 

Dr. Stuppy is a practicing pediatrician in Kansas. I feels privileged to be able to help families keep their children healthy and she loves watching entire families grow!  Dr Stuppy is active on Facebook and puts a more personal touch to pediatric topics on her blog.  

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Gifts of a Father’s Presence. Part 3 of 3

Written by David R. Sprayberry, MD

My last few posts have revolved around the negative effects that absent fathers have on their children.  So far, we have talked about how the absence of a father contributes to poverty, substance use and abuse, psychological and behavioral problems, poorer educational performance, and increased participation in criminal activities.  Today we turn to the positive things that a present father brings to the lives of his children.

Effects on Infants

Let’s starts with infants.  Even in the first few days of life, the effect of a father’s presence can be discerned.  Newborns will preferentially turn their heads to the voice of their fathers over the voices of other men.  Premature infants whose fathers visit the NICU more often tend to have better weight gain during the hospitalization and perform better on behavioral and social-developmental tests during the first 18 months of life.  Infants who demonstrate the most emotional security and attachment have fathers who are affectionate, who spend time with their children, and who have a positive attitude.  Keep in mind that these effects are happening long before the child can even walk and talk.

Effects on Mothers

What about mothers?  When fathers are involved, their children’s mothers are more likely to start and continue breastfeeding.  Mothers with positive relationships with their children’s fathers also demonstrate better parenting skill and fewer emotional difficulties.  Mothers who are feeling supported are more likely to encourage the fathers to be involved with the children.

Early Childhood

Fathers can help reduce the likelihood of stranger anxiety in their children.  Toddlers with present fathers are also less likely to worry and less likely to disrupt the play of other kids.  Preschool children of involved fathers have been found to have higher cognitive development.  They also exhibit more empathy and have a greater sense of mastery over their environment than their peers with less involved dads.

Long-term Benefits

Children who live with both parents are more likely to finish high school, be economically self-sufficient, and be physically healthy.  Fathers have a unique and strong influence on their children’s gender role development and serve as important role models for both boys and girls.

Discipline

Fathers who set appropriate limits for their children and who provide sufficient autonomy have children with higher academic achievement.  Fathers who discipline harshly and/or inconsistently have a negative impact on emotional and academic development.

Educational Benefits

When dads are involved, kids tend to have improved educational outcomes.  Children of fathers who are involved in their children’s education are more likely to achieve better grades, more likely to enjoy school, more likely to participate in extracurricular activities, and are less likely to have repeated a grade.

Additional Benefits

There are numerous other benefits that result from fathers who are involved.  Fathers who spend time alone with their kids and perform routine childcare at least twice a week raise the most compassionate adults.  Physical play with fathers promotes intellectual development and social competence.
Fathers are capable of doing incredible good to their kids by staying involved in their lives.  Dads, you only have a few years with your kids at home.  Make the most of them and be their dad!  Perfection is not necessary.  Presence and participation are.
Dr. Sprayberry is a practicing pediatrician and believes there is more to medicine than shuffling patients in and out the door. To read more about Dr. Sprayberry’s medical trips to Kenya, visit his blog, Pediatrics Gone to the Dawgs.